Let’s take step to prevent it today, it’s “hypertension day” 17th May.
Hypertension is most commonly caused due to lifestyle. It is of two types primary or secondary . Secondary is due to any other diseases. We consider it normal when it is 120/80. Here 120 is Systolic BP and 80 is Diastolic BP . When it goes high up to 140/90 or above for longer period of time then it comes under hypertension. To understand it we need to know what it is actually and what could be the reasons of hypertension .
Hypertension is the chronic increase in the arterial blood pressure due to the flow of blood in it . It is measured by cardiac output multiply by arterial resistance . Blood pressure is determined as Diastolic pressure ( arterial blood pressure during the heart rest ) and Systolic ( Blood pressure that is when heart contract to pump the blood pressure) .
BP = CO ( cardiac output ) X Arterial Resistance
So, BP increase for long period of time because of mainly three reasons :
1. Increased cardiac output : if CO increase then the arterial pressure automatically increases for e.g. during exercise .
2. Blood Volume: If blood volume get increase in body it cause increase in BP.
3. Arterial resistance itself one of the most important cause of high BP , It depends upon – flexibility of artery wall , artery diameter and blood viscosity.
Flexibility of artery wall , artery diameter , blood viscosity all three factors are highly related to lifestyle and dietary intake . High fat or processed diet and lack of physical activity cause decreased arterial diameter, and increase in viscosity of blood . Due to chronic increase in BP it may cause further damage of arterial wall and over a period of time different fats, proteins or toxic particles get accumulate in that damaged wall which form arthrosclerosis.
High BP and its effects on arterial wall cause so many complications to different organs most affected organs are brain , kidney and eyes . If the part of arthrosclerosis get detached and with blood stream reach small capillaries in brain it may cause stock , or it may damage the delicate capillaries in kidney and eyes.
Healthy diet and lifestyle modification is the only way to prevent all this. Take High fibber diet , avoid processed food, avoid smoking, and do moderate exercise to stay healthy. Sodium potassium balance is important to manage hypertension. If BP is sensitive to sodium then cut down the salt intake or potassium rich diet can help a lot . Healthy diet help in thinning blood and arterial wall flexibility.